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The Global Community of Particle Physics

This account brings you hot items from public particle physics news sources, including CERN, SymmetryMagazine.org, and Interactions.org.

  • Sketching suspects with DNA, and using light to find Zika-infected mosquitoes

    2018-05-24T18:29:12Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Sketching suspects with DNA, and using light to find Zika-infected mosquitoes"

    DNA fingerprinting has been used to link people to crimes for decades, by matching DNA from a crime scene to DNA extracted from a suspect. Now, investigators are using other parts of the genome—such as markers for hair and eye color—to help rule people in and out as suspects. Staff Writer Gretchen Vogel talks with Sarah Crespi about whether science supports this approach and how different countries are dealing with this new type of evidence. Sarah also talks with Jill Fernandes of the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia, about her Science Advances paper on a light-based technique for detecting Zika in mosquitoes. Instead of grinding up the bug and extracting Zika DNA, her group shines near-infrared light through the body. Mosquitoes carrying Zika transmit this light differently from uninfected ones. If it’s successful in larger trials, this technique could make large-scale surveillance of infected mosquitoes quicker and less expensive. In our monthly books segment, Jen Golbeck talks with author Sarah-Jayne Blakemore about her new work: Inventing Ourselves: The Secret Life of the Teenage Brain. You can check out more book reviews and share your thoughts on the Books et al. blog. This week’s episode was edited by Podigy. Listen to previous podcasts. [Image: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health; Music: Jeffrey Cook]

    http://traffic.libsyn.com/sciencemag/SciencePodcast_180525.mp3

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  • Samuel Ting to present latest results from AMS

    2018-05-24T12:29:29Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Samuel Ting to present latest results from AMS"

    The AMS detector on the International Space Station (Image: NASA)

    Join us via webcast at 16:30 CEST today to hear particle physicist and Nobel Prize winner Samuel Ting present the latest results from the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) collaboration in its pursuit to understand the origin of cosmic rays and dark matter.

    The AMS detector, which measures 64 cubic metres and weighs 8.5 tonnes, was assembled at CERN. It was delivered by NASA’s space shuttle Endeavour on 16 May 2011 to the International Space Station – the largest structure in space ever built by humans.

    In its seven years on board the Space Station, AMS has collected a huge amount of cosmic-ray data. NASA receives these data in Houston and then transmits them to the AMS Payload Operations Control Centre on the CERN site for analysis. In his talk today, Samuel Ting will describe the latest results from AMS and what they mean for our understanding of the Universe.

    For more information, visit the event page.


    https://home.cern/about/updates/2018/05/samuel-ting-present-latest-results-ams

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  • GRAN SASSO VIDEOGAME. Un videogioco per portare l’attualità della fisica nelle scuole

    2018-05-23T12:29:16Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "GRAN SASSO VIDEOGAME. Un videogioco per portare l’attualità della fisica nelle scuole"

    Selezionato tra i 100 progetti del premio PA sostenibile e premiato come miglior progetto per la categoria Capitale Umano ed educazione.

    Read More ...

    https://www.lngs.infn.it/en/news/gran-sasso-videogame-un-videogioco-per-portare-l-attualita-della-fisica-nelle-scuole

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  • OPERA presents its final results on neutrino oscillations

    2018-05-22T12:29:08Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "OPERA presents its final results on neutrino oscillations"

    The OPERA experiment at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy (Image: INFN)

    The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. In a paper published today in the journal Physical Review Letters, the OPERA collaboration reports the observation of a total of 10 candidate events for a muon to tau-neutrino conversion, in what are the very final results of the experiment. This demonstrates unambiguously that muon neutrinos oscillate into tau neutrinos on their way from CERN, where muon neutrinos were produced, to the Gran Sasso Laboratory 730 km away, where OPERA detected the ten tau neutrino candidates.

    Today the OPERA collaboration has also made their data public through the CERN Open Data Portal. By releasing the data into the public domain, researchers outside the OPERA Collaboration have the opportunity to conduct novel research with them. The datasets provided come with rich context information to help interpret the data, also for educational use. A visualiser enables users to see the different events and download them. This is the first non-LHC data release through the CERN Open Data portal, a service launched in 2014.

    There are three kinds of neutrinos in nature: electron, muon and tau neutrinos. They can be distinguished by the property that, when interacting with matter, they typically convert into the electrically charged lepton carrying their name: electron, muon and tau leptons. It is these leptons that are seen by detectors, such as the OPERA detector, unique in its capability of observing all three. Experiments carried out around the turn of the millennium showed that muon neutrinos, after travelling long distances, create fewer muons than expected, when interacting with a detector. This suggested that muon neutrinos were oscillating into other types of neutrinos. Since there was no change in the number of detected electrons, physicists suggested that muon neutrinos were primarily oscillating into tau neutrinos. This has now been unambiguously confirmed by OPERA, through the direct observation of tau neutrinos appearing hundreds of kilometres away from the muon neutrino source. The clarification of the oscillation patterns of neutrinos sheds light on some of the properties of these mysterious particles, such as their mass.

    The OPERA collaboration observed the first tau-lepton event (evidence of muon-neutrino oscillation) in 2010, followed by four additional events reported between 2012 and 2015, when the discovery of tau neutrino appearance was first assessed. Thanks to a new analysis strategy applied to the full data sample collected between 2008 and 2012 – the period of neutrino production – a total of 10 candidate events have now been identified, with an extremely high level of significance.

    “We have analysed everything with a completely new strategy, taking into account the peculiar features of the events,” said Giovanni De Lellis Spokesperson for the OPERA collaboration. “We also report the first direct observation of the tau neutrino lepton number, the parameter that discriminates neutrinos from their antimatter counterpart, antineutrinos. It is extremely gratifying to see today that our legacy results largely exceed the level of confidence we had envisaged in the experiment proposal.”

    Beyond the contribution of the experiment to a better understanding of the way neutrinos behave, the development of new technologies is also part of the legacy of OPERA. The collaboration was the first to develop fully automated, high-speed readout technologies with sub-micrometric accuracy, which pioneered the large-scale use of the so-called nuclear emulsion films to record particle tracks. Nuclear emulsion technology finds applications in a wide range of other scientific areas from dark matter search to volcano and glacier investigation. It is also applied to optimise the hadron therapy for cancer treatment and was recently used to map out the interior of the Great Pyramid, one of the oldest and largest monuments on Earth, built during the dynasty of the pharaoh Khufu, also known as Cheops.

    https://home.cern/about/updates/2018/05/opera-presents-its-final-results-neutrino-oscillations

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  • Week 19 at the Pole

    2018-05-18T19:29:02Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Week 19 at the Pole"

    A quiet week at the Pole for the detector, but he photos were just striking! Here we have a nice shot of the ceremonial pole marker, with a bright moon situated just behind the sphere and flags flapping in the wind.

    http://icecube.wisc.edu/news/view/577

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  • PROSPECTing for antineutrinos

    2018-05-18T15:29:17Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "PROSPECTing for antineutrinos"

    PROSPECTing for antineutrinosPress Releasexeno Fri, 05/18/2018 - 10:001518

    Issued on behalf of the PROSPECT Collaboration and Oak Ridge National Laboratories

    The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter.

    PROSPECT, located at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at the Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has begun taking data to study electron antineutrinos that are emitted from nuclear decays in the reactor to search for so-called sterile neutrinos and to learn about the underlying nuclear reactions that power fission reactors.

    Antineutrinos are elusive, elementary particles produced in nuclear beta decay. The antineutrino is an antimatter particle, the counterpart to the neutrino.

    “Neutrinos are among the most abundant particles in the universe,” said Yale University physicist Karsten Heeger, principal investigator and co-spokesperson for PROSPECT. “The discovery of neutrino oscillation has opened a window to physics beyond the Standard Model of Physics. The study of antineutrinos with PROSPECT allows us to search for a previously unobserved particle, the so-called sterile neutrino, while probing the nuclear processes inside a reactor.”

    Over the past few years several neutrino experiments at nuclear reactors have detected fewer antineutrinos than scientists had predicted, and the energy of the neutrinos did not match expectations. This, in combination with earlier anomalous results, led to the hypothesis that a fraction of electron antineutrinos may transform into sterile neutrinos that would have remained undetected in previous experiments.

    This hypothesized transformation would take place through a quantum mechanical process called neutrino oscillation. The first observation of neutrino oscillation amongst known types of neutrinos from the sun and the atmosphere led to the 2015 Nobel Prize in physics.

    The installation of PROSPECT follows four years of intensive research and development by a collaboration of more than 60 participants from 10 universities and four national laboratories.

    “The development of PROSPECT is based on years of research in the detection of reactor antineutrinos with surface-based detectors, an extremely challenging task because of high backgrounds,” said PROSPECT co-spokesperson Pieter Mumm, a scientist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

    The experiment uses a novel antineutrino detector system based on a segmented liquid scintillator detector technology. The combination of segmentation and a unique, lithium-doped liquid scintillator formulation allows PROSPECT to identify particle types and interaction points. These design features, along with extensive, tailored shielding, will enable PROSPECT to make a precise measurement of neutrinos in the high-background environment of a nuclear reactor.

    PROSPECT’s detector technology also may have applications in the monitoring of nuclear reactors for non-proliferation purposes and the measurement of neutrons from nuclear processes.

    “The successful operation of PROSPECT will allow us to gain insight into one of the fundamental puzzles in neutrino physics and develop a better understanding of reactor fuel, while also providing a new tool for nuclear safeguards,” said co-spokesperson Nathaniel Bowden, a scientist at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and an expert in nuclear non-proliferation technology.

    After two years of construction and final assembly at the Yale Wright Laboratory, the PROSPECT detector was transported to HFIR in early 2018.

    “The development and construction of PROSPECT has been a significant team effort, making use of the complementary expertise at U.S. national laboratories and universities,” said Alfredo Galindo-Uribarri, leader of the Neutrino and Advanced Detectors group in ORNL’s Physics Division.

    PROSPECT is the latest in a series of fundamental science experiments located at HFIR.

    “We are excited to work with PROSPECT scientists to support their research,” said Chris Bryan, who manages experiments at HFIR for ORNL’s Research Reactors Division.

    The experiment is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, the Heising-Simons Foundation, and the National Science Foundation. Additional support comes from Yale University, the Illinois Institute of Technology, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LDRD program. The collaboration also benefits from the support and hospitality of the High Flux Isotope Reactor, a DOE Office of Science User Facility, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

    View images

    Additional Contacts

    Jim Shelton (203) 432-3881 james.shelton@yale.edu

    Anne Stark (925) 422-9799 stark8@llnl.gov

    Charles Boutin (301) 975-4261 charles.boutin@nist.gov

    Dawn Levy (865) 576-6448 or levyd@ornl.gov

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    We advance fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics to gain a deeper understanding of matter, energy, space, and time; apply photon sciences and nanomaterials research to energy challenges of critical importance to the nation; and perform cross-disciplinary research on climate change, sustainable energy, and Earth’s ecosystems.  


     

    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    P.O. Box 5000
    Upton, NY11973-5000
    United States

    + 1 631 344 8000

    https://www.bnl.gov/world/

    Media and Communications Office  
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    genzer@bnl.gov
     

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  • A bumper crop of LHC results at Quark Matter 2018

    2018-05-18T14:28:51Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "A bumper crop of LHC results at Quark Matter 2018"

    A xenon–xenon collision recorded by the CMS detector. (Image: CMS/CERN)

    Some 900 nuclear physicists from all over the world are meeting this week in Venice, Italy, for Quark Matter 2018, the 27th International Conference on Ultrarelativistic Nucleus–Nucleus Collisions. The focus of the conference is the hot quark–gluon plasma (QGP) that is thought to have prevailed in the first millionths of a second after the Big Bang, and which can be created for a fleeting moment in collisions of atomic nuclei accelerated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the conference, the main LHC experiments (ALICE, ATLASCMS and LHCb) are presenting a wealth of new results from such collisions that provide insight into this extreme state of matter.

    For more information, see the related Update for scientists.

    https://home.cern/about/updates/2018/05/bumper-crop-lhc-results-quark-matter-2018

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  • Tracking ancient Rome’s rise using Greenland’s ice, and fighting fungicide resistance

    2018-05-17T19:28:48Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Tracking ancient Rome’s rise using Greenland’s ice, and fighting fungicide resistance"

    Two thousand years ago, ancient Romans were pumping lead into the air as they smelted ores to make the silvery coin of the realm. Online news editor David Grimm talks to Sarah Crespi about how the pollution of ice in Greenland from this process provides a detailed 1900-year record of Roman history. This week is also resistance week at Science—where researchers explore the global challenges of antibiotic resistance, pesticide resistance, herbicide resistance, and fungicide resistance. Sarah talks with Sarah Gurr of the University of Exeter in the United Kingdom about her group’s work on the spread of antifungal resistance and what it means for crops and in the clinic. And in a bonus books segment, staff writer Jennifer Couzin-Frankel talks about medicine and fraud in her review of Bad Blood: Secrets and Lies in a Silicon Valley Startup by John Carreyrou. This week’s episode was edited by Podigy. Listen to previous podcasts. [Image: Wheat rust/Oregon State University; Music: Jeffrey Cook]

    http://traffic.libsyn.com/sciencemag/SciencePodcast_180518.mp3

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  • Scuola Europea di "RF Coils Design" presso Università dell'Aquila

    2018-05-16T10:28:50Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Scuola Europea di "RF Coils Design" presso Università dell'Aquila"

    La Società Europea di Risonanza Magnetica in Medicina e Biologia (ESMRMB) http://www.esmrmb.org organizza la Scuola Europea di "RF Coils Design" presso l'Università dell'Aquila dal 17 al 20 settembre 2018.

    Read More ...

    https://www.lngs.infn.it/en/news/scuola-europea-di-rf-coils-design-presso-universita-dell-aquila

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  • Sinfonia dal Cosmo

    2018-05-15T12:29:05Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Sinfonia dal Cosmo"

    Comporre musica a partire dall’osservazione dei muoni provenienti dal cosmo: è questo l’originale obiettivo del progetto “sinfonia del cosmo” che sarà presentato giovedì 17 maggio a Teramo, presso l’Università degli Studi di Teramo. 

    Read More ...

    https://www.lngs.infn.it/en/news/sinfonia-dal-cosmo

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  • Quark Matter 2018: Nuclear Physicists Gather to Discuss Fundamental Particle Interactions

    2018-05-11T17:29:59Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Quark Matter 2018: Nuclear Physicists Gather to Discuss Fundamental Particle Interactions"

    Quark Matter 2018: Nuclear Physicists Gather to Discuss Fundamental Particle InteractionsPress Releasexeno Fri, 05/11/2018 - 11:571418

    UPTON, NY—Nuclear physicists from around the world seeking to understand the intricate details of the building blocks of visible matter are meeting in Venice, Italy, May 13-19, to discuss the latest results and theoretical interpretations of data from the world's premiere collider facilities.

    High-energy collisions of atomic nuclei at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC, https://www.bnl.gov/rhic/) at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and the European Large Hadron Collider (LHC) briefly liberate the fundamental particles that make up protons and neutrons—known as quarks and gluons—from their confinement within these particles so nuclear physicists can study them as they existed at the dawn of the universe. Physicists also explore the "quark-gluon plasma" created in these collisions to learn about the strong nuclear force—the strongest force in Nature—which holds quarks and gluons together in the ordinary matter of everything we see in the universe today.

    This will be the 27th International Conference on Ultra-Relativistic Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions—more commonly referred to as Quark Matter 2018—and the 13th since RHIC, a DOE Office of Science user facility for nuclear physics research, began operations in 2000.

    "These Quark Matter meetings started with the discussion of earlier experiments that in many ways guided the scientific goals and construction of RHIC and the plan to have a heavy-ion physics program at the LHC," said James Dunlop, Associate Chair for Nuclear Physics in Brookhaven Lab's Physics Department and a researcher on RHIC's STAR experiment. "At each successive conference, physicists in this field present data collected with ever-higher precision and use comparisons with theory to refine explanations for what we are observing."

    "The fact that RHIC and the LHC can measure things very similarly with similar precision in very different systems—in terms of the temperature and density created in the collisions—means we can learn much more than we would by measuring at just one point," Dunlop said.

    Most talks are focused on particle interactions, but the meeting also offers attendees—including students just entering the field—the chance to interact.

    "Getting everybody together, mixing students with senior faculty and scientists across the various experimental collaborations, research facilities, and theorists—not just within their own groups—gives people ideas of what to look at next," said Helen Caines, a Yale University physicist who is a co-spokesperson for the STAR collaboration at RHIC.

    Several sessions will be devoted to exploring possible future physics facilities, including a proposed U.S.-based Electron-Ion Collider (EIC).  At an EIC, physicists hope to explore how the arrangement and interactions among quarks and gluons within protons and atomic nuclei establish the fundamental properties of those particles and the ordinary nuclear matter within and around us.

    HIGHLIGHTS OF PRESENTATIONS FROM RHIC

    RHIC currently hosts two experimental collaborations, each with a complex particle detector for tracking and analyzing collision data—STAR, which is still operating, and PHENIX, which is undergoing a major transformation into a new detector known as sPHENIX , but still has ample data to analyze from experimental runs prior to 2018. At Quark Matter 2018, these collaborations will present high-precision data on details of the "perfect liquid" quark-gluon plasma (QGP) created when two heavy ions such as gold nuclei collide, the characteristics needed to create a system of this early-universe substance, and comparisons with results from a range of other collision systems, including proton-proton, proton-gold, and different types of nuclei.

    Differences among heavy particles

    Since RHIC's earliest days, scientists have studied the collective behavior of particles emerging from the collisions. They've interpreted certain patterns of particle flow observed in the high-energy gold-gold collisions as evidence of the liquid-like properties of the QGP. Building on data presented at the last Quark Matter meeting in February 2017, PHENIX will present data that look in detail at how different types of heavy particles get caught up in this flow. With four times as much data, PHENIX will now be able to disentangle signals from so-called charm and even heavier bottom quarks and present the first results on how each of these flow.

    PHENIX will also present data on correlations in the way pairs of particles called muons emerge with respect to one another perpendicular to the path of the colliding beams in proton-proton collisions. "This analysis provides a picture of how the heavy quarks are produced from the underlying quark and gluon interactions," said Stefan Bathe, a professor at Baruch College, City University of New York, and a deputy spokesperson for PHENIX. The PHENIX data indicate that this process turns out to be different for charm and bottom quarks, contrary to observations at higher energy at the LHC.

    STAR will also address questions of how different types of heavy particles behave. For example, they will present a new analysis of results from the high-precision "Heavy Flavor Tracker" (HFT, ) that show how one type of heavy-quark-containing particle known as a D-zero meson moves out of the plasma. The results reveal that these heavy particles have a smaller "radial velocity" than particles made of light quarks. That means these heavy particles "freeze out"—become composite particles and stop interacting with the plasma—sooner than composite particles made of lighter quarks.

    "These results give us snapshots at different times in a system that lasts only a miniscule fraction of a second," said Caines. "We can use them to disentangle what happens when—what part of a particle's behavior is due to what happens in the quark-gluon plasma and what happens later—to learn more about the plasma.

    "It's kind of like, if you watch someone running in a race and you only measure her speed at the start and the end, you only have rather limited information. But if you can measure at different points, you may be able to get some idea about what happened during the race, for instance did she run at a steady pace or stop and take a break in the middle."

    STAR will also present data comparing how composite particles containing heavy charm quarks form in gold-gold collisions and in proton-proton collisions. It appears that these charm quarks get incorporated into different types of composite particles in the two systems.

    "If you have a bath of many quarks and gluons, as you do in the gold-gold collisions, it appears to be easier to make exotic types of particles than if you have a smaller bath [in proton-proton collisions]," Caines said. "This adds to our evidence that something different is happening in these two systems," she noted, explaining that the gold-gold collisions routinely create quark-gluon plasma while the proton-proton collisions generally do not.

    QGP in small systems

    There is, however, a growing body of evidence that QGP can be created where scientists least expected it. PHENIX will present extensive data analyzing collisions of relatively small particles (protons, deuterons, and helium-3 nuclei, made of one, two, and three particles, respectively) with gold ions. Earlier data hinted that these collisions appear to create tiny drops of QGP at the point of impact because they all produce particle flow patterns that are remarkably similar to those observed in high-energy gold-gold collisions, albeit on a smaller scale. Intriguingly, the deuteron-gold collisions produced mostly elliptical droplets, while the droplets produced in helium-gold collisions emerged primarily in triangular patterns.

    To confirm if these flow patterns were indeed triggered by the formation of small drops of QGP, PHENIX explored whether the flow patterns mimic the shape of the projectile penetrating the gold nucleus, as would be expected when a near-perfect fluid is formed. There was also a possibility that these shaped flow patterns could have been caused, instead, by an initial-state interaction among the particles without the formation of QGP.

    "We have now completed measurements of the strength of the triangular and elliptic flow patterns in three different systems with very different initial geometries," said Julia Velkovska, a deputy spokesperson for PHENIX from Vanderbilt University. "These measurements, taken together, rule out the possibility that the flow patterns are triggered mainly by initial-state effects. Models that include QGP formation, on the other hand, were able to predict the results observed in all three systems in a very clear and quantitative way, strengthening our confidence that these flow patterns are triggered by the formation of QGP."

    A possible look at initial state conditions

    A similar connection between shape and flow was apparent in the earliest measurements of flow at RHIC, where the elliptical flow pattern observed in high energy gold-gold collisions was linked to the elliptic shape formed by two partially overlapping gold ions at the earliest stage of a collision (picture two spheres colliding off-center to create a football-shaped overlap region). RHIC scientists assumed that the orientation of this elliptic shape would be the same at different longitudinal points along the path of the colliding ions.  But now, STAR has new results from measurements at different longitudinal points that suggest a significant twist of the initial ellipse along this path.

    "In order for these details of the initial state to survive and leave an imprint on the transverse flow pattern in the final state, the quarks and gluons in the interacting ions must collide very frequently," said Caines. "These new measurements are consistent with previous findings that the matter created in the collisions behaves as a nearly perfect liquid with very low shear viscosity, or resistance to flow."

    In principle, these measurements might allow scientists to discern among different theoretical descriptions of how energy is distributed in the transverse and longitudinal direction right after the collision. "But what we see is a much stronger signal than any of the models predict," said Caines. "We have a hint that we don't understand, so we want to keep looking at what this initial state looks like. No matter what, these new data provide important new clues about the 3D structure of the initial state."

    PHENIX has also made strides in deciphering the initial state. At Quark Matter, the collaboration will present new measurements of elliptic and triangular flow patterns from gold-gold collisions with different degrees of centrality, or overlap between the colliding spherical nuclei. These new measurements were performed on an event-by-event basis, instead of determining the average flow strength over many collisions. They contain essential information about the fluctuations in the initial state and how the near-perfect fluid translates those to the final-state particle distributions. The collaboration also made complementary measurements based on multi-particle correlations. "We are now in a position to determine details of the flow patterns that can distinguish between initial-state fluctuations and additional sources of fluctuations during the evolution of the QGP," Velkovska said.

    Using photons to track the Quark-Gluon Plasma transition

    PHENIX will present new data on photons—particles of light—emitted from a wide range of heavy ion collision systems, including gold-gold and copper-copper, and compare these data to those in lead-lead collisions at the LHC.

    The color of the photons emitted by the matter created in heavy-ion collisions carries information about the temperature—think of a piece of iron glowing red in a blacksmith's fire, or an even hotter white glow. PHENIX has used such measurements of "direct photons" to establish that RHIC's gold-gold collisions create temperatures more than hot enough to create quark-gluon plasma.

    The newer measurements compare the rate of photon production in the various heavy-ion systems and also in proton-proton collisions. PHENIX discovered a common behavior of photon production in heavy ion collisions that is different from photon production in proton-proton collisions.

    "That means all heavy-ion systems, independent of energy and system size, have something in common but are different from proton-proton systems," Bathe said. 

    But what about those collisions of small particles with heavy ions? "If there are small drops of QGP in small systems, there should also be thermal photons emitted from those collisions," Bathe said. "We will present data from proton-gold and deuteron-gold collisions that show that those small systems bridge the transition from proton-proton to heavy ion collisions."

    Swirliest matter redux

    STAR will also present much more detail about the record-setting vorticity, or swirliness, of the QGP, following up on a paper published last summer that revealed how they track this swirling by measuring the spin alignment of certain particles emitted from the plasma. The new analyses are based on 150 times more data. They include comparisons of how vorticity varies depending on how central, or head-on, the collisions are. The closer to head-on the collisions get, the lower the vorticity, which is what the scientists expected since it's the off-center collisions that set the QGP swirling. More data being collected in this year's RHIC run should allow the physicists to use these measurements to determine the strength of the QGP's magnetic field.

    Research at RHIC is funded primarily by the DOE Office of Science, and also by these agencies and organizations.  

    Brookhaven National Laboratory is supported by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy. The Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States, and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

    Follow @BrookhavenLab on Twitter or find us on Facebook.

    One of ten national laboratories overseen and primarily funded by the Office of Science of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Brookhaven National Laboratory conducts research in the physical, biomedical, and environmental sciences, as well as in energy technologies and national security. Brookhaven Lab also builds and operates major scientific facilities available to university, industry and government researchers. Brookhaven is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates, a limited-liability company founded by the Research Foundation for the State University of New York on behalf of Stony Brook University, the largest academic user of Laboratory facilities, and Battelle, a nonprofit applied science and technology organization.

    View this news release online

    Media contacts: Karen McNulty Walsh, (631) 344-8350, or Peter Genzer, (631) 344-3174

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    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Brookhaven National Laboratory

    We advance fundamental research in nuclear and particle physics to gain a deeper understanding of matter, energy, space, and time; apply photon sciences and nanomaterials research to energy challenges of critical importance to the nation; and perform cross-disciplinary research on climate change, sustainable energy, and Earth’s ecosystems.  


     

    Brookhaven National Laboratory
    P.O. Box 5000
    Upton, NY11973-5000
    United States

    + 1 631 344 8000

    https://www.bnl.gov/world/

    Media and Communications Office  
    Peter Genzer
    + 1 631 344 5056 
    genzer@bnl.gov
     

    https://www.interactions.org/press-release/quark-matter-2018-nuclear-physicists-gather-discuss

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  • Ancient DNA is helping to find the first horse tamers, and a single gene is spawning a fierce debate in salmon conservation

    2018-05-10T18:29:55Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Ancient DNA is helping to find the first horse tamers, and a single gene is spawning a fierce debate in salmon conservation"

    Who were the first horse tamers? Online news editor Catherine Matacic talks to Sarah Crespi about a new study that brings genomics to bear on the question. The hunt for the original equine domesticators has focused on Bronze Age people living on the Eurasian steppe. Now, an ancient DNA analysis bolsters the idea that a small group of hunter-gatherers, called the Botai, were likely the first to harness horses, not the famous Yamnaya pastoralists often thought to be the originators of the Indo-European language family. Sarah also talks with news intern Katie Langin about her feature story on a single salmon gene that may separate spring- and fall-run salmon. Conservationists, regulators, and citizens are fiercely debating the role such a small bit of DNA plays in defining distinct populations. Is the spring run distinct enough to warrant protection This week’s episode was edited by Podigy. Listen to previous podcasts. [Image: Jessica Piispanen/USFWS; Music: Jeffrey Cook]

    http://traffic.libsyn.com/sciencemag/SciencePodcast_180511.mp3

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  • Week 18 at the Pole

    2018-05-10T14:29:45Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Week 18 at the Pole"

    Even in winter, you can get an impressive halo—here it’s the moon. Halos are caused by light interacting with ice crystals suspended in the atmosphere, and these circular halos, which can form around the sun or the moon, are called 22-degree halos. They’re fairly common, seen more frequently than rainbows.

    http://icecube.wisc.edu/news/view/576

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  • The IceCube Collaboration meeting in Atlanta begins today!

    2018-05-08T15:29:57Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "The IceCube Collaboration meeting in Atlanta begins today!"

    Hosted by Georgia Tech, the spring IceCube Collaboration meeting starts today in Atlanta. Two hundred IceCube collaborators from 49 institutions will meet to discuss about a variety of topics, including the future expansion of IceCube.

    http://icecube.wisc.edu/news/view/575

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  • Using CERN technology for medical challenges

    2018-05-08T13:29:51Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Using CERN technology for medical challenges"

    The best moments of the CERN Medical Technology Hackathon (Medtech:Hack), 6-9 April 2018. (Video: CERN)

    A mobile kit for monitoring health parameters in harsh situations and a scanner for radiopharmaceuticals are the winners of the first CERN Medical Technology Hackathon, Medtech:Hack. At CERN, technology and healthcare experts joined forces to find innovative solutions to current medical challenges.

    Aspiring Medtech:Hack participants were asked to use CERN technologies to propose innovative solutions for more efficient cancer radiation therapy, new software toolkits for mammography, viable mobile health tools, or systems for quicker screening of radiopharmaceuticals. These challenges were set by the California company RadiaBeam Technologies, the Swiss healthtech company G-ray, the Global Humanitarian Lab and the Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève (HUG).

    Out of 25 applications from 14 countries, five teams of students and young professionals were selected to come to CERN from 6 to 9 April to work on their ideas or prototypes. CERN technical know-how was shared and complemented by the challenge mentors, including our two industry partners, HUG medical doctors and experts from the Global Humanitarian Lab. Impact HUB Geneva was also present, helping the teams with their business model development. 

    After three days of intense work, the jury had a tough job selecting a winner. In the end, they chose two teams, one from Tanzania and one from Germany. 

    The team from Tanzania devised Box.e, a portable device with several sensors for measuring the vital signs of patients, using CERN’s C2MON technology to store and monitor data. More compact than current tools, this mobile health technology could be useful in the humanitarian and development sectors, improving healthcare access in difficult conditions, where standardisation and large-scale connectivity are valuable assets.

    The team from Germany came up with Bioscan, a modular hybrid scanner for measuring radioactivity in drugs. Using CERN’s GEMPix detector, this tool promises a quicker way to screen new radiopharmaceuticals in large cell and tissue libraries. 

    Both winning teams were awarded a stay at CERN to continue developing their projects. The team from Tanzania presented their idea at the Geneva Health Forum opening ceremony, and the team from Germany won a spot in the second round of judging at MassChallenge Switzerland. 

    This hackathon was organised by the CERN Knowledge Transfer group to explore new ways of developing viable applications for CERN technologies in the medical technology field. 

    For more details, see the recent CERN community article.

     

    https://home.cern/about/updates/2018/05/using-cern-technology-medical-challenges

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  • Open Day 2018

    2018-05-08T10:29:47Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Open Day 2018"

    Domenica 27 maggio 2018, una giornata di scienza e giorco. I Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso organizzano l'OPEN-DAY in collaborazione con l'Associazione per l'Insegnamento della Fisica.

    Read More ...

    https://www.lngs.infn.it/en/news/open-day2018-news

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  • Construction Begins on One of the World’s Most Sensitive Dark Matter Experiments

    2018-05-07T13:28:43Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Construction Begins on One of the World’s Most Sensitive Dark Matter Experiments"

    The SuperCDMS SNOLAB project, a multi-institutional effort led by SLAC, is expanding the hunt for dark matter to particles with properties not accessible to any other experiment.

    https://www6.slac.stanford.edu/news/2018-05-07-construction-begins-one-worlds-most-sensitive-dark-matter-experiments.aspx

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  • Are you up for the TrackML challenge?

    2018-05-07T13:28:42Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Are you up for the TrackML challenge?"

    10,000 tracks grouping 100,000 points in a future LHC detector as simulated for the TrackML challenge (Image: TrackML Challenge Team/CERN)

    Physicists from the ATLAS, CMS and LHCb collaborations have just launched the TrackML challenge – your chance to develop new machine-learning solutions for the next generation of particles detectors.

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) produces hundreds of millions of collisions every second, generating tens of petabytes of data a year. Handling this flood of data is a major challenge for the physicists, who have developed tools to process and filter the events online within a fraction of a second and select the most promising collision events.

    Managing the amount of data will become even more challenging in the near future: a major upgrade foreseen for 2026, the planned start of the High-Luminosity LHC, will increase the collision rate up to a factor of five. Innovative new software solutions will be needed to promptly reconstruct the tracks produced by these collisions with the available computing resources.

    To help address this issue, a team of machine-learning experts and LHC physicists has partnered with Kaggle to probe the question: can machine learning assist high-energy physics in discovering and characterising new particles?

    Specifically, in this competition, you’re challenged to build an algorithm that quickly and efficiently reconstructs particle tracks from 3D points left in the silicon detectors. The challenge consists of two phases:

    • The “Accuracy Phase” is now running on Kaggle from May to July 2018. Here the focus is on the highest score, irrespective of the evaluation time. This phase is an official IEEE WCCI competition (Rio de Janeiro, July 2018).

    • The “Throughput Phase” will run on Codalab from July to October 2018. Participants will submit their software to be evaluated by the platform. Incentive is on the throughput (or speed) of the evaluation while reaching a good score. This phase is an official NIPS competition (Montreal, December 2018).

    Sign up for the TrackML challenge today. The top three scorers will receive cash prizes. Selected winners may be awarded a top-notch NVIDIA v100 GPU, or get the chance to visit CERN or attend the 2018 Conference on Neural Information Processing Systems in Montreal (Canada).

    For more information and the participation conditions, visit the Kaggle challenge website and the official TrackML twitter account.

    https://home.cern/about/updates/2018/05/are-you-trackml-challenge

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  • Week 17 at the Pole

    2018-05-04T14:28:39Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "Week 17 at the Pole"

    Last week was fairly relaxed at the Pole. Some testing and troubleshooting with the detector, but all went rather smoothly. As for the skies? They were glowing. And swirling, and shimmering. The auroras sometimes swirl into shapes suggesting all kinds of things.

    http://icecube.wisc.edu/news/view/574

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  • The twins climbing Mount Everest for science, and the fractal nature of human bone

    2018-05-03T19:29:17Z via NavierStokesApp To: Public

    "The twins climbing Mount Everest for science, and the fractal nature of human bone"

    To study the biological differences brought on by space travel, NASA sent one twin into space and kept another on Earth in 2015. Now, researchers from that project are trying to replicate that work planet-side to see whether the differences in gene expression were due to extreme stress or were specific to being in space. Sarah Crespi talks with Online News Editor Catherine Matacic about a “control” study using what might be a comparably stressful experience here on Earth: climbing Mount Everest. Catherine also shares a recent study that confirmed what one reddit user posted 5 years ago: A single path stretching from southern Pakistan to northeastern Russia will take you on the longest straight-line journey on Earth, via the ocean. Finally, Sarah talks with Roland Kröger of the University of York in the United Kingdom about his group’s study published this week in Science. Using a combination of techniques usually reserved for materials science, the group explored the nanoscale arrangement of mineral in bone, looking for an explanation of the tissue’s contradictory combination of toughness and hardness. This week’s episode was edited by Podigy. Listen to previous podcasts. [Image: Human bone (20X) by Berkshire Community College Bioscience Image Library; Music: Jeffrey Cook]

    http://traffic.libsyn.com/sciencemag/SciencePodcast_180504.mp3

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